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Design Patterns – Creational.

Creational:

1. Factory Pattern
2. Abstract Factory Pattern
3. Singleton Pattern
4. Builder Pattern
5. Prototype Pattern

Factory Pattern

Factory pattern is one of the most used design patterns in Java. This type of design pattern comes under creational pattern as this pattern provides one of the best ways to create an object.
In Factory pattern, we create object without exposing the creation logic to the client and refer to newly created object using a common interface.

Implementation
We’re going to create a Shape interface and concrete classes implementing the Shape interface. A factory class ShapeFactory is defined as a next step.

FactoryPatternDemo, our demo class will use ShapeFactory to get a Shape object. It will pass information (CIRCLE / RECTANGLE / SQUARE) to ShapeFactory to get the type of object it needs.

Factory Pattern UML Diagram
factory_pattern_uml_diagram
Step 1
Create an interface.

Shape.java

public interface Shape {
   void draw();
}

Step 2
Create concrete classes implementing the same interface.

Rectangle.java

public class Rectangle implements Shape {

   @Override
   public void draw() {
      System.out.println("Inside Rectangle::draw() method.");
   }
}

Square.java

public class Square implements Shape {

   @Override
   public void draw() {
      System.out.println("Inside Square::draw() method.");
   }
}
Circle.java

public class Circle implements Shape {

   @Override
   public void draw() {
      System.out.println("Inside Circle::draw() method.");
   }
}

Step 3
Create a Factory to generate object of concrete class based on given information.

ShapeFactory.java

public class ShapeFactory {

   //use getShape method to get object of type shape
   public Shape getShape(String shapeType){
      if(shapeType == null){
         return null;
      }
      if(shapeType.equalsIgnoreCase("CIRCLE")){
         return new Circle();

      } else if(shapeType.equalsIgnoreCase("RECTANGLE")){
         return new Rectangle();

      } else if(shapeType.equalsIgnoreCase("SQUARE")){
         return new Square();
      }

      return null;
   }
}

Step 4
Use the Factory to get object of concrete class by passing an information such as type.

FactoryPatternDemo.java

public class FactoryPatternDemo {

   public static void main(String[] args) {
      ShapeFactory shapeFactory = new ShapeFactory();

      //get an object of Circle and call its draw method.
      Shape shape1 = shapeFactory.getShape("CIRCLE");

      //call draw method of Circle
      shape1.draw();

      //get an object of Rectangle and call its draw method.
      Shape shape2 = shapeFactory.getShape("RECTANGLE");

      //call draw method of Rectangle
      shape2.draw();

      //get an object of Square and call its draw method.
      Shape shape3 = shapeFactory.getShape("SQUARE");

      //call draw method of circle
      shape3.draw();
   }
} 

Step 5
Verify the output.

Inside Circle::draw() method.
Inside Rectangle::draw() method.
Inside Square::draw() method.

============================================================================

Abstract Factory

Abstract Factory patterns work around a super-factory which creates other factories. This factory is also called as factory of factories. This type of design pattern comes under creational pattern as this pattern provides one of the best ways to create an object.

In Abstract Factory pattern an interface is responsible for creating a factory of related objects without explicitly specifying their classes. Each generated factory can give the objects as per the Factory pattern.

Implementation

We are going to create a Shape and Color interfaces and concrete classes implementing these interfaces. We create an abstract factory class AbstractFactory as next step. Factory classes ShapeFactory and ColorFactory are defined where each factory extends AbstractFactory. A factory creator/generator class FactoryProducer is created.

AbstractFactoryPatternDemo, our demo class uses FactoryProducer to get a AbstractFactory object. It will pass information (CIRCLE / RECTANGLE / SQUARE for Shape) to AbstractFactory to get the type of object it needs. It also passes information (RED / GREEN / BLUE for Color) to AbstractFactory to get the type of object it needs.

Abstract Factory Pattern UML Diagram

Step 1

Create an interface for Shapes.

Shape.java

public interface Shape {
   void draw();
}

Step 2

Create concrete classes implementing the same interface.

Rectangle.java

public class Rectangle implements Shape {

   @Override
   public void draw() {
      System.out.println("Inside Rectangle::draw() method.");
   }
}

Square.java

public class Square implements Shape {

   @Override
   public void draw() {
      System.out.println("Inside Square::draw() method.");
   }
}

Circle.java

public class Circle implements Shape {

   @Override
   public void draw() {
      System.out.println("Inside Circle::draw() method.");
   }
}

Step 3

Create an interface for Colors.

Color.java

public interface Color {
   void fill();
}

Step4

Create concrete classes implementing the same interface.

Red.java

public class Red implements Color {

   @Override
   public void fill() {
      System.out.println("Inside Red::fill() method.");
   }
}

Green.java

public class Green implements Color {

   @Override
   public void fill() {
      System.out.println("Inside Green::fill() method.");
   }
}

Blue.java

public class Blue implements Color {

   @Override
   public void fill() {
      System.out.println("Inside Blue::fill() method.");
   }
}

Step 5

Create an Abstract class to get factories for Color and Shape Objects.

AbstractFactory.java

public abstract class AbstractFactory {
   abstract Color getColor(String color);
   abstract Shape getShape(String shape) ;
}

Step 6

Create Factory classes extending AbstractFactory to generate object of concrete class based on given information.

ShapeFactory.java

public class ShapeFactory extends AbstractFactory {
	
   @Override
   public Shape getShape(String shapeType){
   
      if(shapeType == null){
         return null;
      }		
      
      if(shapeType.equalsIgnoreCase("CIRCLE")){
         return new Circle();
         
      }else if(shapeType.equalsIgnoreCase("RECTANGLE")){
         return new Rectangle();
         
      }else if(shapeType.equalsIgnoreCase("SQUARE")){
         return new Square();
      }
      
      return null;
   }
   
   @Override
   Color getColor(String color) {
      return null;
   }
}

ColorFactory.java

public class ColorFactory extends AbstractFactory {
	
   @Override
   public Shape getShape(String shapeType){
      return null;
   }
   
   @Override
   Color getColor(String color) {
   
      if(color == null){
         return null;
      }		
      
      if(color.equalsIgnoreCase("RED")){
         return new Red();
         
      }else if(color.equalsIgnoreCase("GREEN")){
         return new Green();
         
      }else if(color.equalsIgnoreCase("BLUE")){
         return new Blue();
      }
      
      return null;
   }
}

Step 7

Create a Factory generator/producer class to get factories by passing an information such as Shape or Color

FactoryProducer.java

public class FactoryProducer {
   public static AbstractFactory getFactory(String choice){
   
      if(choice.equalsIgnoreCase("SHAPE")){
         return new ShapeFactory();
         
      }else if(choice.equalsIgnoreCase("COLOR")){
         return new ColorFactory();
      }
      
      return null;
   }
}

Step 8

Use the FactoryProducer to get AbstractFactory in order to get factories of concrete classes by passing an information such as type.

AbstractFactoryPatternDemo.java

public class AbstractFactoryPatternDemo {
   public static void main(String[] args) {

      //get shape factory
      AbstractFactory shapeFactory = FactoryProducer.getFactory("SHAPE");

      //get an object of Shape Circle
      Shape shape1 = shapeFactory.getShape("CIRCLE");

      //call draw method of Shape Circle
      shape1.draw();

      //get an object of Shape Rectangle
      Shape shape2 = shapeFactory.getShape("RECTANGLE");

      //call draw method of Shape Rectangle
      shape2.draw();
      
      //get an object of Shape Square 
      Shape shape3 = shapeFactory.getShape("SQUARE");

      //call draw method of Shape Square
      shape3.draw();

      //get color factory
      AbstractFactory colorFactory = FactoryProducer.getFactory("COLOR");

      //get an object of Color Red
      Color color1 = colorFactory.getColor("RED");

      //call fill method of Red
      color1.fill();

      //get an object of Color Green
      Color color2 = colorFactory.getColor("Green");

      //call fill method of Green
      color2.fill();

      //get an object of Color Blue
      Color color3 = colorFactory.getColor("BLUE");

      //call fill method of Color Blue
      color3.fill();
   }
}

Step 9

Verify the output.

Inside Circle::draw() method.
Inside Rectangle::draw() method.
Inside Square::draw() method.
Inside Red::fill() method.
Inside Green::fill() method.
Inside Blue::fill() method.

===========================================================================

Singleton pattern

Singleton pattern is one of the simplest design patterns in Java. This type of design pattern comes under creational pattern as this pattern provides one of the best ways to create an object.

This pattern involves a single class which is responsible to create an object while making sure that only single object gets created. This class provides a way to access its only object which can be accessed directly without need to instantiate the object of the class.

Implementation
We’re going to create a SingleObject class. SingleObject class have its constructor as private and have a static instance of itself.

SingleObject class provides a static method to get its static instance to outside world. SingletonPatternDemo, our demo class will use SingleObject class to get a SingleObject object.

Singleton Pattern UML Diagram
singleton_pattern_uml_diagram
Step 1
Create a Singleton Class.

SingleObject.java

public class SingleObject {

   //create an object of SingleObject
   private static SingleObject instance = new SingleObject();

   //make the constructor private so that this class cannot be
   //instantiated
   private SingleObject(){}

   //Get the only object available
   public static SingleObject getInstance(){
      return instance;
   }

   public void showMessage(){
      System.out.println("Hello World!");
   }
}

Step 2
Get the only object from the singleton class.

SingletonPatternDemo.java

public class SingletonPatternDemo {
   public static void main(String[] args) {

      //illegal construct
      //Compile Time Error: The constructor SingleObject() is not visible
      //SingleObject object = new SingleObject();

      //Get the only object available
      SingleObject object = SingleObject.getInstance();

      //show the message
      object.showMessage();
   }
}

Step 3
Verify the output.

Hello World!

===========================================================================

Builder

Builder pattern builds a complex object using simple objects and using a step by step approach. This type of design pattern comes under creational pattern as this pattern provides one of the best ways to create an object.
A Builder class builds the final object step by step. This builder is independent of other objects.

Implementation

We have considered a business case of fast-food restaurant where a typical meal could be a burger and a cold drink. Burger could be either a Veg Burger or Chicken Burger and will be packed by a wrapper. Cold drink could be either a coke or pepsi and will be packed in a bottle.

We are going to create an Item interface representing food items such as burgers and cold drinks and concrete classes implementing the Item interface and a Packing interface representing packaging of food items and concrete classes implementing the Packing interface as burger would be packed in wrapper and cold drink would be packed as bottle.

We then create a Meal class having ArrayList of Item and a MealBuilder to build different types of Meal objects by combining Item. BuilderPatternDemo, our demo class will use MealBuilder to build a Meal.

Builder Pattern UML Diagram

Step 1

Create an interface Item representing food item and packing.

Item.java

public interface Item {
   public String name();
   public Packing packing();
   public float price();	
}

Packing.java

public interface Packing {
   public String pack();
}

Step 2

Create concrete classes implementing the Packing interface.

Wrapper.java

public class Wrapper implements Packing {

   @Override
   public String pack() {
      return "Wrapper";
   }
}

Bottle.java

public class Bottle implements Packing {

   @Override
   public String pack() {
      return "Bottle";
   }
}

Step 3

Create abstract classes implementing the item interface providing default functionalities.

Burger.java

public abstract class Burger implements Item {

   @Override
   public Packing packing() {
      return new Wrapper();
   }

   @Override
   public abstract float price();
}

ColdDrink.java

public abstract class ColdDrink implements Item {

	@Override
	public Packing packing() {
       return new Bottle();
	}

	@Override
	public abstract float price();
}

Step 4

Create concrete classes extending Burger and ColdDrink classes

VegBurger.java

public class VegBurger extends Burger {

   @Override
   public float price() {
      return 25.0f;
   }

   @Override
   public String name() {
      return "Veg Burger";
   }
}

ChickenBurger.java

public class ChickenBurger extends Burger {

   @Override
   public float price() {
      return 50.5f;
   }

   @Override
   public String name() {
      return "Chicken Burger";
   }
}

Coke.java

public class Coke extends ColdDrink {

   @Override
   public float price() {
      return 30.0f;
   }

   @Override
   public String name() {
      return "Coke";
   }
}

Pepsi.java

public class Pepsi extends ColdDrink {

   @Override
   public float price() {
      return 35.0f;
   }

   @Override
   public String name() {
      return "Pepsi";
   }
}

Step 5

Create a Meal class having Item objects defined above.

Meal.java

import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.List;

public class Meal {
   private List<Item> items = new ArrayList<Item>();	

   public void addItem(Item item){
      items.add(item);
   }

   public float getCost(){
      float cost = 0.0f;
      
      for (Item item : items) {
         cost += item.price();
      }		
      return cost;
   }

   public void showItems(){
   
      for (Item item : items) {
         System.out.print("Item : " + item.name());
         System.out.print(", Packing : " + item.packing().pack());
         System.out.println(", Price : " + item.price());
      }		
   }	
}

Step 6

Create a MealBuilder class, the actual builder class responsible to create Meal objects.

MealBuilder.java

public class MealBuilder {

   public Meal prepareVegMeal (){
      Meal meal = new Meal();
      meal.addItem(new VegBurger());
      meal.addItem(new Coke());
      return meal;
   }   

   public Meal prepareNonVegMeal (){
      Meal meal = new Meal();
      meal.addItem(new ChickenBurger());
      meal.addItem(new Pepsi());
      return meal;
   }
}

Step 7

BuiderPatternDemo uses MealBuider to demonstrate builder pattern.

BuilderPatternDemo.java

public class BuilderPatternDemo {
   public static void main(String[] args) {
   
      MealBuilder mealBuilder = new MealBuilder();

      Meal vegMeal = mealBuilder.prepareVegMeal();
      System.out.println("Veg Meal");
      vegMeal.showItems();
      System.out.println("Total Cost: " + vegMeal.getCost());

      Meal nonVegMeal = mealBuilder.prepareNonVegMeal();
      System.out.println("\n\nNon-Veg Meal");
      nonVegMeal.showItems();
      System.out.println("Total Cost: " + nonVegMeal.getCost());
   }
}

Step 8

Verify the output.

Veg Meal
Item : Veg Burger, Packing : Wrapper, Price : 25.0
Item : Coke, Packing : Bottle, Price : 30.0
Total Cost: 55.0


Non-Veg Meal
Item : Chicken Burger, Packing : Wrapper, Price : 50.5
Item : Pepsi, Packing : Bottle, Price : 35.0
Total Cost: 85.5

===========================================================================

Prototype

Prototype pattern refers to creating duplicate object while keeping performance in mind. This type of design pattern comes under creational pattern as this pattern provides one of the best ways to create an object.

This pattern involves implementing a prototype interface which tells to create a clone of the current object. This pattern is used when creation of object directly is costly. For example, an object is to be created after a costly database operation. We can cache the object, returns its clone on next request and update the database as and when needed thus reducing database calls.

Implementation

We’re going to create an abstract class Shape and concrete classes extending the Shape class. A class ShapeCache is defined as a next step which stores shape objects in a Hashtable and returns their clone when requested.
PrototypPatternDemo, our demo class will use ShapeCache class to get a Shape object.

Prototype Pattern UML Diagram

Step 1

Create an abstract class implementing Clonable interface.

Shape.java

public abstract class Shape implements Cloneable {
   
   private String id;
   protected String type;
   
   abstract void draw();
   
   public String getType(){
      return type;
   }
   
   public String getId() {
      return id;
   }
   
   public void setId(String id) {
      this.id = id;
   }
   
   public Object clone() {
      Object clone = null;
      try {
         clone = super.clone();   
      } catch (CloneNotSupportedException e) {
         e.printStackTrace();
      }      
      return clone;
   }
}

Step 2

Create concrete classes extending the above class.

Rectangle.java

public class Rectangle extends Shape {

   public Rectangle(){
     type = "Rectangle";
   }

   @Override
   public void draw() {
      System.out.println("Inside Rectangle::draw() method.");
   }
}

Square.java

public class Square extends Shape {

   public Square(){
     type = "Square";
   }

   @Override
   public void draw() {
      System.out.println("Inside Square::draw() method.");
   }
}

Circle.java

public class Circle extends Shape {

   public Circle(){
     type = "Circle";
   }

   @Override
   public void draw() {
      System.out.println("Inside Circle::draw() method.");
   }
}

Step 3

Create a class to get concrete classes from database and store them in a Hashtable.

ShapeCache.java

import java.util.Hashtable;

public class ShapeCache {
	
   private static Hashtable<String, Shape> shapeMap  = new Hashtable<String, Shape>();

   public static Shape getShape(String shapeId) {
      Shape cachedShape = shapeMap.get(shapeId);
      return (Shape) cachedShape.clone();
   }

   // for each shape run database query and create shape
   // shapeMap.put(shapeKey, shape);
   // for example, we are adding three shapes
   
   public static void loadCache() {
      Circle circle = new Circle();
      circle.setId("1");
      shapeMap.put(circle.getId(),circle);

      Square square = new Square();
      square.setId("2");
      shapeMap.put(square.getId(),square);

      Rectangle rectangle = new Rectangle();
      rectangle.setId("3");
      shapeMap.put(rectangle.getId(), rectangle);
   }
}

Step 4

PrototypePatternDemo uses ShapeCache class to get clones of shapes stored in a Hashtable.

PrototypePatternDemo.java

public class PrototypePatternDemo {
   public static void main(String[] args) {
      ShapeCache.loadCache();

      Shape clonedShape = (Shape) ShapeCache.getShape("1");
      System.out.println("Shape : " + clonedShape.getType());		

      Shape clonedShape2 = (Shape) ShapeCache.getShape("2");
      System.out.println("Shape : " + clonedShape2.getType());		

      Shape clonedShape3 = (Shape) ShapeCache.getShape("3");
      System.out.println("Shape : " + clonedShape3.getType());		
   }
}

Step 5

Verify the output.

Shape : Circle
Shape : Square
Shape : Rectangle

==========================================================================
SOURCE: https://www.tutorialspoint.com/design_pattern/design_pattern_overview.htm

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One response to “Design Patterns – Creational.

  1. Pingback: Design Patterns | Girl in IT-wolrd

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